Does exercising in my garage/covered patio count as an outdoor workout?

No. The purpose of the outdoor workout is to push yourself to expose yourself to the potential unpleasantness of the elements. It’s more than just the exercise. You are training yourself to take on tasks regardless of what stands in your way. This translates to every other aspect of your life. If you can follow through on a workout in the rain or sun or snow, you’ll find that you won’t let other inconveniences stop you as you work toward other goals in your life either.